Neuro-Ophthalmology Nuggets

This site presents essays on various aspects of clinical neuro-ophthalmology, with emphasis on visual disturbances and clinical examination techniques. Some basic knowledge of general ophthalmology is presumed. By Lars Frisén, MD, PhD (about).

• Nerve Fiber Layer Basics

• Hints on Eye Motility Examinations

• Diagnostic aids: • Nystagmus; • Pupils

• A compact EOM+ video library

• On Hidden Ocular Torsions, With a 3-D Twist

• Hints on Visual Field Examinations

• Visual Field Diagnosis by Pattern Matching

• On High-pass Resolution and RareBit Perimetry

• Multiple rarebits (multibits): a fast lane for vision testing

• On self-testing of vision - New test battery

• On Testing for Vigabatrin Toxicity

• Hints on Color Vision Testing - New threshold tests

• On Super-Resolution

• On Critical Testing of Central Vision

• On Seeing with Defective Vision

• Homonymous hemianopia: training gaze casting - New

• On Dichoptic Reaction Times

• Seeing Spots or Lights: Dynamic Simulations

• Unstable Vision: Dynamic Simulations

• Ocipital Epilepsy: Dynamic Simulations

• On Pulfrich's Phenomenon

• On Monocular Pulfrich Counterparts

• Vertiginous Vision and Diplopia: Dynamic Simulations

• The Next Best Instrument?

• Visual Diversions

• Making a webcam ophthalmoscope

• ... and an iPhone ophthalmoscope

• List of diagnostic aids on site, by name

• Neuroanatomy on the Web

© 2005-2023 by Lars Frisén, MD, PhD, Neuro-ophthalmology, Sahlgren's University Hospital, SE-413 45 Göteborg, Sweden  -  Who?

Optimized for 1024 x 768 pixel screens and MS Edge and Chrome. As of 2016, all interactive displays depend on HTML5 and JavaScript (previous Java applets have been scrapped), and all videos have been converted from the flv format to mp4. The old site address ( is no longer operational.

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Latest update: November 24, 2023.